SCIENTIFC AMERICAN
TABLE OF CONTENTS
June 96
May 96
April 96
March 96
February 96
January 96
December 95
November 95

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN
Table of Contents: June 1996 Volume 274 Number 6

FROM THE EDITORS

LETTERS TO THE EDITORS

50, 100 AND 150 YEARS AGO

NEWS AND ANALYSIS

IN FOCUS
China's plans for "peaceful" atomic tests inspire unease.

SCIENCE AND THE CITIZEN
Downtown on the farm.... Life on the Unabomber's list.... Galileo at Jupiter.... Lizard kings.... Forecasting Alzheimer's.

CYBER VIEW
Keeping databases under lock and key.

TECHNOLOGY AND BUSINESS
Mind reading for movement.... Cruising by balloon.... Super-ultrasound.

PROFILE
Demographic criminologist James Alan Fox braces for a crime wave.


Semiconductor Subsidies
Lucien P. Randazzese
The federally funded research consortium SEMATECH is often credited with restoring vigor to the U.S. semiconductor industry. The ability of such cooperative efforts to foster competitive technology can be severely limited, however, as illustrated by the noteworthy failure of GCA Corporation. A once successful manufacturer of microlithography tools, GCA hit hard times during the 1980s. SEMATECH tried to resuscitate GCA's business but could not. That experience holds lessons for other public and private policymakers.

Training the Olympic Athlete
Jay T. Kearney
In competitions that push the limits of human performance, victory can hinge on scant centimeters or hundredths of a second. To get the edge they need, modern Olympians and their coaches turn to science and technology. A sports scientist for the U.S. Olympic Committee describes how training programs drawing on physiology, psychology, aerodynamics and other disciplines are boosting the performance of athletes in four events: bicycling, weight lifting, rowing and shooting.

Trends in Space Science
Science in the Sky

Tim Beardsley, staff writer
The $27-billion International Space Station will not do many of the jobs once conceived for it. Industrial interest in it has ebbed. Uncertainties about Russia's commitment jeopardize its mission. Next year NASA will start building it anyway.

Confronting the Nuclear Legacy
Can Nuclear Waste Be Stored Safely

Chris G. Whipple
Controversy surrounds U.S. government hopes to dispose of high-level radioactive waste in Nevada. Unanswered technical and geological questions leave it unclear how safe this plan may be. Last in a series.

The Reluctant Father of Black Holes
Jeremy Bernstein
Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity and his invention of quantum-statistical mechanics are the foundation for all speculations about the reality of black holes. Yet Einstein rejected the idea of such bizarre singularities and repeatedly argued against their existence.

Science in Pictures
The Art of Charles R. Knight

Gregory S. Paul
The conception of dinosaurs as sluggish, pea-brained giants owes as much to art as to science--specifically, the work of this painter, whose murals of the distant past shaped the thinking of paleontologists and the public throughout this century.

Taxoids: New Weapons against Cancer
K. C. Nicolaou, Rodney K. Guy and Pierre Potier
The bark of the Pacific yew tree contains a chemical, taxol, with remarkable anticancer potency. Early problems with scarcity and side effects have recently been overcome. Now chemists are synthesizing a family of related drugs, called taxoids, that may turn out to be even better than the original.


THE AMATEUR SCIENTIST
A professional-quality balance without a heavy price tag.

MATHEMATICAL RECREATIONS
An overlooked numerical series spins out things of beauty.

REVIEWS AND COMMENTARIES
Amazonian riches.... The haunting lure of pseudoscience.... On-line onstage.... Chemistry's yin and yang.
WONDERS, by Philip Morrison: The intense science of creating high pressures.
CONNECTIONS, by James Burke: From galvanized Frankenstein to atomized gasoline.

WORKING KNOWLEDGE
The fleet inflation of air bags.

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN June 1996 Volume 274 Number 6 Pages 4-5

Scientific American (ISSN 0036-8733), published monthly by Scientific American, Inc., 415 Madison Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10017-1111. Copyright 1996 by Scientific American, Inc. All rights reserved. Except for one-time personal use, no part of any issue may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic or electronic process, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted or otherwise copied for public or private use without written permission of the publisher. For information regarding back issues, reprints or permissions, E-mail SCAinquiry@aol.com.


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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN
Table of Contents: May 1996 Volume 274 Number 5

FROM THE EDITORS

LETTERS TO THE EDITORS

50, 100 AND 150 YEARS AGO

NEWS AND ANALYSIS

IN FOCUS
Physicians still do not honor living wills.

SCIENCE AND THE CITIZEN

Medical trials in question.... The future chess champion.... Biodiversity and productivity.... What pigs think.

CYBER VIEW
Broadcasting on a narrow medium.

TECHNOLOGY AND BUSINESS
A tailless airplane.... Fake muscles, real bones.... Wandering genes.

PROFILE
Distinguished naturalist Miriam Rothschild defies categorization.


The Horror of Land Mines
Gino Strada
Antipersonnel mines have become a favorite weapon of military factions: they are inexpensive, durable and nightmarishly effective. At least 100 million of them now litter active and former war zones around the world, each year killing or maiming 15,000 people--mostly civilians, many children. The author, a surgeon who specializes in treating mine victims, describes the design of mines and the carnage they inflict, and argues for banning them.

The Kuiper Belt
Jane X. Luu and David C. Jewitt
Four years ago the authors spotted an icy, ruddy object a few hundred kilometers wide beyond the orbit of Neptune and enlarged the known disk of our solar system. A belt of similar objects, left over from the formation of the planets, is probably where short-period comets originate.

Uncovering New Clues to Cancer Risk
Frederica P. Perera
Why do only some of the people exposed to carcinogens get cancer? What makes certain individuals more susceptible than others? A new science, called molecular epidemiology, is beginning to find the biological markers that could help warn us about which factors are personally riskiest.

Software for Reliable Networks
Kenneth P. Birman and Robbert van Renesse
The failure of a single program on a single computer can sometimes crash a network of intercommunicating machines, causing havoc for stock exchanges, telephone systems, air-traffic control and other operations. Two software designers explain what can be done to make networks more robust.

The Pursuit of Happiness
David G. Myers and Ed Diener
Social scientists have more often focused on anger and anxiety, but now some are also looking at the phenomenon of happiness. They find that people are generally happier than one might expect and that levels of life satisfaction seem to have surprisingly little to do with favorable circumstances.

The Beluga Whales of the St. Lawrence River
Pierre Beland
Between 1866 and 1960, hunters caught more than 16,000 of these white whales. Today only 500 remain in the St. Lawrence. Although hydroelectric projects have been blamed for their recent woes, belugas' great enemy now seems to be pollution.

The Lost Technology of Ancient Greek Rowing
John R. Hale
The oared galleys of the Greeks once ruled the Mediterranean, outmaneuvering and ramming enemy vessels. Their key advantage, unknown for centuries, may have been an invention rediscovered by Victorian competitive rowers: the sliding seat.

Confronting the Nuclear Legacy
Hanford's Nuclear Wasteland

Glenn Zorpette, staff writer
The weapons complex near Hanford, Wash., made plutonium throughout the cold war. The U.S. is now spending billions to decontaminate this huge site, yet no one knows how to do it or how clean will be clean enough. Second in a series.


THE AMATEUR SCIENTIST
Detecting low-frequency electromagnetic waves.

MATHEMATICAL RECREATIONS
Fractal sculpture turns cubes into flowing spirals.

REVIEWS AND COMMENTARIES
Four books make complexity less confusing.... The Bomb on CD-ROM.... Endangered flora.... Darwin goes to the movies.
WONDERS, by Philip Morrison: Finding invisible planets.
CONNECTIONS, by James Burke: From phonetic writing to stained brains.

WORKING KNOWLEDGE
Why elevators are safe.


SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN May 1996 Volume 274 Number 5 Pages 2-3

Scientific American (ISSN 0036-8733), published monthly by Scientific American, Inc., 415 Madison Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10017-1111. Copyright 1996 by Scientific American, Inc. All rights reserved. Except for one-time personal use, no part of any issue may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic or electronic process, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted or otherwise copied for public or private use without written permission of the publisher. For information regarding back issues, reprints or permissions, E-mail SCAinquiry@aol.com.


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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN
Table of Contents: April 1996 Volume 274 Number 4

FROM THE EDITORS

LETTERS TO THE EDITORS

50, 100 AND 150 YEARS AGO

NEWS AND ANALYSIS

IN FOCUS
Frozen embryos face an uncertain tomorrow.

SCIENCE AND THE CITIZEN
Human ancestors outside Africa.... Polly wants a student.... Killer neutrinos.... Antihydrogen.

CYBER VIEW
Censorship and the Telecoms bill.

TECHNOLOGY AND BUSINESS
Federal software inefficiencies.... Litigating the science of implants.

PROFILE
Biologist Margie Profet argues why sickness makes sense.


Confronting the Nuclear Legacy
Ten Years of the Chornobyl Era
Yuri M. Shcherbak
A decade ago reactor number 4 at the Chornobyl nuclear power plant exploded, showering much of eastern Europe with radioactive debris. The Ukrainian ambassador to the U.S., who was a medical researcher in Kiev and one of the first physicians to treat the wounded, looks at the medical aftermath of the accident. He also contemplates what additional technological and political measures need to be taken to contain the lasting danger. First in a series.

The Birth of Complex Cells
Christian de Duve
Some components of complex cells, or eukaryotes, are descended from more simple cells that once lived symbiotically inside a larger host. Those cellular partnerships caused major evolutionary leaps, but they took time to develop. A Nobelist explains how natural selection paved the way for those jumps.

Searching for Life on Other Planets
J. Roger P. Angel and Neville J. Woolf The recent thrilling discoveries of planets around other stars are only the beginning. If astronomers are to learn whether there are worlds like our own, they will need new types of telescopes that can identify the telltale elemental signatures of life despite light-years of distance and the glare of other suns.

Smart Rooms
Alex P. Pentland
The computer on your desk may soon become part of the walls of your office, the furniture in your home and the clothes on your back. Systems that can track people, recognize their faces, and interpret speech, expressions and gestures have become a reality. Using this technology, researchers are building "smart rooms" in which, free from wires and keyboards, people can browse multimedia displays, play with virtual animals or control programs by sign language.

Alcohol in American History
David F. Musto
In the U.S., attitudes toward alcohol and drinking seem to oscillate between approval and condemnation over intervals of about 60 years, according to this historian. The medical research cited to defend each point of view tends to reflect the prevailing social opinion of the times.


SCIENCE IN PICTURES
Captured in Amber
David A. Grimaldi
A recently unearthed treasure trove of amber has yielded the oldest perfectly preserved specimen of a flower from the Cretaceous period. Meanwhile genes from insects trapped in sap 25 million years ago solve long-standing evolutionary mysteries.

TRENDS IN NANOTECHNOLOGY
Waiting for Breakthroughs
Gary Stix, staff writer
Nanotechnology mavens predict that machines the size of a virus will build anything we want, from rocket engines to new body parts, one molecule at a time. It's a daring vision--but not one shared by many of the researchers actually manipulating atoms.

THE AMATEUR SCIENTIST
Monitoring earthquakes in your backyard.

MATHEMATICAL RECREATIONS
Probability shows why all's fair in Monopoly.

REVIEWS AND COMMENTARIES
Do dinosaur books savage paleontology?... Numskull numbers.... Monkeying with science. Wonders, by the Morrisons: Apartheid's electronic legacy. Connections, by James Burke: From hot coffee to evolution.

WORKING KNOWLEDGE
What puts the zip in this fastener.


SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN April 1996 Volume 274 Number 4 Pages 4-5

Scientific American (ISSN 0036-8733), published monthly by Scientific American, Inc., 415 Madison Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10017-1111. Copyright 1996 by Scientific American, Inc. All rights reserved. Except for one-time personal use, no part of any issue may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic or electronic process, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted or otherwise copied for public or private use without written permission of the publisher. For information regarding back issues, reprints or permissions, E-mail SCAinquiry@aol.com.


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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN
Table of Contents: March 1996 Volume 274 Number 3

Urban Planning in Curitiba
Jonas Rabinovitch and Josef Leitman
Smog, gridlock, overcrowding and blight sometimes seem like the inevitable price of metropolitan growth, but a fast-rising city in southeastern Brazil has found a better way. Simple technologies, creative use of resources and a public transportation system that is pleasant, efficient and affordable have turned Curitiba into a model of what more cities COULD be.

Collisions with Comets and Asteroids
Tom Gehrels
Small rocky or icy bodies, left over from the formation of the planets, normally follow distant, stable orbits, but rare mischance can send one hurtling into the inner solar system. A leader of the Spacewatch team that tracks near-earth comets and asteroids describes their awesome beauty, the odds of a collision with our world and what could be done to prevent a cataclysm.

The African AIDS Epidemic
John C. Caldwell and Pat Caldwell
The scourge of AIDS falls hard on parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Half of all cases are found within a chain of countries home to just 2 percent of the world's population. Unlike the scenario in most regions, here the virus causing the disease spreads almost entirely through heterosexual intercourse. Only one factor seems to correlate with the exceptionally high susceptibility: lack of male circumcision.

Budding Vesicles in Living Cells
James E. Rothman and Lelio Orci
Within a cell, bundles of proteins and other molecules traffic from one compartment to another inside membrane bubbles, or vesicles. How these vesicles emerge as needed from one set of intracellular organs and deliver their payload at the right destination has been an intensively studied biological mystery. A transatlantic collaboration between the authors has helped to find answers.

SCIENCE IN PICTURES
The Art and Science of Photoreconnaissance
Dino A. Brugioni
Photoreconnaissance by spy planes and satellites has pulled the superpowers back from the brink of war several times. A former image analyst for the CIA shares tricks of the trade and recently declassified pictures that made history.

Electrons in Flatland
Steven Kivelson, Dung-Hai Lee and Shou-Cheng Zhang
When moving electrons are trapped in the flat space between semiconductors and exposed to a magnetic field, they exhibit an unusual behavior called the quantum Hall effect. In essence, the electrons form a distinct phase of matter. Explanations for the changes may be linked to mechanisms of superconductivity.

Caribbean Mangrove Swamps
Klaus Rutzler and Ilka C. Feller
Mangroves are trees adapted for life in shallow water along the oceans' tropical shores; communities of organisms reside in and around them, creating a habitat reminiscent of both a forest and a coral reef. The authors, a marine biologist and a forest ecologist, guide us through one such mangrove swamp in Belize.

TRENDS IN HUMAN GENETICS
Vital Data
Tim Beardsley, staff writer
The Human Genome Project is years from completion, but already DNA tests for a widening array of conditions are bursting into the marketplace. Some companies are rushing into a realm as yet unmapped by medicine, ethics or the law.


DEPARTMENTS
Science and the Citizen
How much for the liver?... NASA and nausea.... Helium shortage.... Brazil's lost desert.... Thirsty moths.... Viruses trace neurons.... Cosmic rays.... Escher for the ear.... Getting Washington's goats.

The Analytical Economist
Women's real economic prospects.

Technology and Business
The scoop on plutonium processing.... Military prototypes in Bosnia.... Public-key encryption at risk.

Profile
Albert Libchaber brings order to chaos studies.


Letters to the Editors
Rising IQs.... Life's purpose.... Alien abductions and Freud.

50, 100 and 150 Years Ago
1946: X-rays in factories.
1896: A pioneer of flight.
1846: Bigfoot or tall tale?

The Amateur Scientist
Measuring the strength of chemical bonds.

Mathematical Recreations
Squaring off in a board game of Quads.

Reviews and Commentaries
Star Trek physics.... Surviving the future.... Wonders, by the Morrisons: Earth's asymmetries.... Connections, by James Burke: Code and commerce.

Essay: Anne Eisenberg
Data mining and privacy invasion on the Net.


SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN March 1996 Volume 274 Number 3 Pages 4-5

Scientific American (ISSN 0036-8733), published monthly by Scientific American, Inc., 415 Madison Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10017-1111. Copyright 1996 by Scientific American, Inc. All rights reserved. Except for one-time personal use, no part of any issue may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic or electronic process, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted or otherwise copied for public or private use without written permission of the publisher. For information regarding back issues, reprints or permissions, E-mail SCAinquiry@aol.com.


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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN
Table of Contents: February 1996 Volume 274 Number 2

Malnutrition, Poverty and Intellectual Development
J. Larry Brown and Ernesto Pollitt
Lack of essential nutrients during a child's early development can stunt mental achievement for a lifetime. Researchers had once assumed that this impairment resulted directly from irreversible brain damage, but now the mechanism appears more complex. The important finding is that a more enriched diet and educational environment may often be able to restore some lost cognitive skills.

The Global Positioning System
Thomas A. Herring
Two dozen satellites hovering thousands of miles up can locate your position on the earth's surface to within a few centimeters. Originally constructed for military purposes, this network of space beacons today finds civilian applications--such as landing airplanes in fog--that demand accuracy beyond what its designers had thought would be technically possible.

Seeing Underwater with Background Noise
Michael J. Buckingham, John R. Potter and Chad L. Epifanio
The crash of waves, the patter of rain, the thrum of ships' engines and other activities fill the oceans with ambient sound, much as the sun fills our sky with light. Using a variation on sonar technologies, it is now possible to visualize objects underwater by seeing how they interact with this "acoustic daylight." A prototype system has already been tested with the help of killer whales.

Telomeres, Telomerase and Cancer
Carol W. Greider and Elizabeth H. Blackburn
Time whittles away at us, in literal truth: in much of the human body, those precious bundles of DNA called chromosomes become fractionally shorter with every cell division. Tumor cells, though, are immortal, seemingly because an enzyme called telomerase often rebuilds the shrinking ends of the chromosomes. New research is focusing on telomerase as a possible target for anticancer therapies.

Colossal Galactic Explosions
Sylvain Veilleux, Gerald Cecil and Jonathan Bland-Hawthorn
The centers of some galaxies glow with a light that outshines the entire Milky Way. Black holes a billion times more massive than our sun may power most of them; others draw their energy from a rapid pulse of stellar evolution that creates millions of hot stars in a small volume of space. By strewing space with heavy elements, these active galaxies may shape the evolution of the universe.

The Bacteria behind Ulcers
Martin J. Blaser
Not spicy foods or nervous dispositions but acid-loving microbes are the culprits in most cases of stomach ulcers. They seem to be linked to stomach cancer as well. At least a third of all people carry these bacteria, yet only a small number ever become sick. Discover why that may be and what the newest treatments are.

The Loves of the Plants
Londa Schiebinger
When the great taxonomist Linnaeus looked at a flower bed, he saw a veritable orgy of botanical lust. By choosing to classify plants on the basis of their flowers' reproductive organs, he imposed 18th-century assumptions on the interpretation of nature--and found a natural "validation" of contemporary sexual values.

Quarks by Computer
Donald H. Weingarten
The theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD, for short) explains the behavior of matter well, but it has one drawback: its mathematics is too complicated for exact predictions. At least, it used to be--until the author helped to build a computer that tamed the ferocious calculations at the heart of fundamental physics.


DEPARTMENTS
Science and the Citizen
Delivering vaccines.... Cooling budgets at the South Pole.... Schizophrenia.... Virus amok Down Under.... How many doctors in the house?... Why France REALLY wants nuclear tests.... The minority majority.... Radar into the past.... Water fluoridation.

The Analytical Economist
Communism's new capitalist clothes.

Technology and Business
Insurers fret over climate change.... The evolving Internet.... History lesson for Bill Gates.

Profile
Daniel C. Dennett explains consciousness and unleashes Darwin.


Letters to the Editors
Sex, evolution and psychology.... Identifying estrogens.... Physics survives.

50, 100 and 150 Years Ago
1946: No atomic cars.
1896: Spanish meteorite.
1846: Fire extinguisher.

The Amateur Scientist
Simulating how plants would grow on Mars.

Mathematical Recreations
Zero-based transactions: they know that you know that they know.

Reviews and Commentaries
Star guides.... Ecology in error?... Wonders, by the Morrisons: Binary beauty.... Connections, by James Burke: Fairy tales and photoelectricity.

Essay: James Randi
These weeping Madonnas are less than miraculous.


SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN February 1996 Volume 274 Number 2 Pages 4-5

Scientific American (ISSN 0036-8733), published monthly by Scientific American, Inc., 415 Madison Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10017-1111. Copyright 1996 by Scientific American, Inc. All rights reserved. Except for one-time personal use, no part of any issue may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic or electronic process, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted or otherwise copied for public or private use without written permission of the publisher. For information regarding back issues, reprints or permissions, E-mail SCAinquiry@aol.com.


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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN
Table of Contents: January 1996 Volume 274 Number 1

The Real Threat of Nuclear Smuggling
Phil Williams and Paul N. Woessner
The amount of plutonium needed to build a nuclear weapon could fit inside two soft-drink cans. Much less is needed for other deadly acts of terrorism. Those facts, coupled with the huge, poorly supervised nuclear stockpiles in Russia and elsewhere, make the danger of a black market in radioactive materials all too real. Yet disturbingly little is being done to contain this menace.

Caloric Restriction and Aging
Richard Weindruch
Want to live longer? Eating fewer calories might help. Although the case for humans is still being studied, organisms ranging from single cells to mammals survive consistently longer when fed a well-balanced but spartanly local diet. Good news for snackers: understanding the biochemistry of this benefit may lead to a solution that extends longevity without hunger.

Technology and Economics in the Semiconductor Industry
G. Dan Hutcheson and Jerry D. Hutcheson
Semiconductor Cassandras have repeatedly warned that chipmakers were approaching a barrier to further improvements; every time, ingenuity pushed back the wall. With the cost of building a factory climbing into the billions, a true slow-down may yet be inescapable. Even so, the industry can still grow vigorously by working to make microchips that are more diverse, rather than just faster.

Neural Networks for Vertebrate Locomotion
Sten Grillner
How does the brain coordinate the many muscle movements involved in walking, running and swimming? It doesn't--some of the control is delegated to local systems of neurons in the spinal cord. Working with primitive fish called lampreys, investigators have identified parts of this circuitry. These discoveries raise the prospects for eventually being able to restore mobility to some accident victims.

Cleaning Up the River Rhine
Karl-Geert Malle
The Rhine is Europe's most economically important river: 20 percent of its water is diverted for human purposes, and it is a vital artery for shipping and power. Twenty years ago pollution threatened to ruin both the Rhine's beauty and its utility. International cooperation, however, has now brought many troublesome sources of chemical contamination under control.

The Evolution of Continental Crust
S. Ross Taylor and Scott M. McLennan
The continents not only rise above the level of the seas, they float atop far denser rocks below. Of all the worlds in the solar system, only our own has sustained enough geologic activity through the constant movement of its tectonic plates to create such huge, stable landmasses.

SCIENCE IN PICTURES
Working Elephants
Michael J. Schmidt
In the dense forests of Myanmar (formerly Burma), teams of elephants serve as an ecologically benign alternative to mechanical logging equipment. Maintaining this tradition might help save these giants and the Asian environment.

TRENDS IN THEORETICAL PHYSICS
Explaining Everything
Madhusree Mukerjee, staff writer
Ever since Einstein, physicists have dreamed of a Theory of Everything--an equation that explains the universe. Their latest, greatest hope is that a newly recognized symmetry, duality, may help infinitesimal strings tie reality together.


DEPARTMENTS
Science and the Citizen
Culture and mental illness.... RNA and the origin of life.... Space junk.... Quantum erasers.... Resistant microbes.... The studs of science.... New planets.

The Analytical Economist
Gutting social research.

Technology and Business
Breeder reactors: the next generation.... Stair-climbing wheelchair.... Japan on-line.... Fractal-based software.

Profile
Physicist Joseph Rotblat's odyssey to the Nobel Prize for Peace.


Letters to the Editors
Fly the crowded skies.... How much energy?... The dilemmas of AIDS.

50, 100 and 150 Years Ago
1946: Making high-octane gasoline.
1896: The missing link in Java.
1846: Mesmerizing crime.

The Amateur Scientist
How to record and collect the sounds of nature.

Mathematical Recreations
The slippery puzzle under Mother Worm's Blanket.

Reviews and Commentaries
The why of sex.... Hypertext.... Wonders, by Philip Morrison: A century of new physics.... Connections, by James Burke: Hydraulics and cornflakes.

Essay: Christian de Duve
The evolution of life was not so unlikely after all.


SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN January 1996 Volume 274 Number 1 Pages 4-5

Scientific American (ISSN 0036-8733), published monthly by Scientific American, Inc., 415 Madison Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10017-1111. Copyright 1995 by Scientific American, Inc. All rights reserved. Except for one-time personal use, no part of any issue may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic or electronic process, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted or otherwise copied for public or private use without written permission of the publisher. For information regarding back issues, reprints or permissions, E-mail SCAinquiry@aol.com.


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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN
Table of Contents: December 1995 Volume 273 Number 6

The Galileo Mission, Torrence V. Johnson
This month, Jupiter's turbulent skies will flare briefly with the fiery descent of a probe dropped from the Galileo spacecraft. For Galileo, arrival at Jupiter marks the end of a long, strange odyssey that took it past Venus, asteroids, the moon and the earth (twice). Thanks to the ingenuity of NASA scientists, the craft has so far repeatedly beaten technical obstacles that could have scrubbed the mission.

Cystic Fibrosis, Michael J. Welsh and Alan E. Smith
A salty brow and phlegm-choked lungs are hallmarks of this fatal disease, one of the most common genetic disorders. Six years ago biologists isolated the gene that causes cystic fibrosis. Follow-up investigations identified a flaw in the ability of affected lung cells to transport certain ions. These details point the way to better therapies and to the still elusive goal of a permanent cure.

SCIENCE IN PICTURES
The Leaning Tower of Pisa, Paolo Heiniger
Surprise: it was built crooked. Almost from the start of its construction 800 years ago, engineers have tinkered with this bell tower to keep it upright despite an unevenly sinking foundation. Current efforts aim to stabilize the lean.

Giant Earthquakes of the Pacific Northwest, Roy D. Hyndman
Residents of Seattle and Vancouver who feel safely distant from the temblors of Los Angeles and San Francisco should think again. New studies of the geologic record make it clear that the Cascadia region has often experienced massive quakes above 8 on the Richter scale. Some of these cataclysms raised tsunamis that crossed the Pacific and washed onto the shores of Japan.

How Breast Milk Protects Newborns, Jack Newman
A nursing mother passes more than love and nutrients on to her baby: the milk also defends against getting sick. Human milk contains a healthful porridge of cells and substances that boost and supplement the newborn's immune system. These components include a special class of antibodies made by the mother that effectively extend the reach of her own immune responses into the child.

The Puzzle of Conscious Experience, David J. Chalmers
Neuroscience has done much to explain how the brain works, but consciousness-the subjective experience of having a mind-has been less tractable. This philosopher offers reasons why and frames a new science of thought. Also: Francis Crick and Christof Koch argue for the power of more conventional approaches.

Confidential Communication on the Internet, Thomas Beth
Sending private data over open computer networks is fraught with peril. Almost any message might be intercepted or altered, and neither party can be sure of the other's identity. A new cryptographic protocol invented by the author and his colleagues, using electronic "passports," provides welcome security.

TRENDS IN DEFENSE TECHNOLOGY
Fighting Future Wars, Gary Stix, staff writer
Will the next U.S. military engagement be a remote-control firefight? A hacker skirmish in cyberspace? Or a peacekeeping assignment against lethal but low-tech adversaries? A look at how the hardware and strategies affect one another.


DEPARTMENTS
Science and the Citizen
Danger at sea.... Rebellious kids in utero.... The genetics (and politics) of crime.... Sign language.... Digesting global warming.... Uh, where's the outlet?... Oily federal deals.... Crowning the IgNobility.

The Analytical Economist
Indexing inflation.

Technology and Business
Star Wars is back: So what?... The FAA puts planes in free flight.... Golfers road test hydrogen cars.

Profile
Martin Gardner, alias Dr. Matrix, the Mathematical Gamester.

JOHN BECK
Ocean Drilling Program


Letters to the Editors
Overlooked science.... Creationism in disguise.... The trebuchet next door.

Mathematical Recreations
Murphy's Law demystified: why toast falls butter-side down.

Reviews and Commentaries
The Scientific American Young Readers Book Awards.... Connections: Springs, steel and W.C.'s.

50, 100 and 150 Years Ago
1945: Atomic power prediction.
1895: The Electric Hen.
1845: Uncountable comets.

Essay: James Boyk
Some of the most virtuoso piano talent never perform onstage.

The Amateur Scientist
Measuring micrometabolism-how fast does a beetle breathe?

Annual Index 1995


Scientific American (ISSN 0036-8733), published monthly by Scientific American, Inc., 415 Madison Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10017-1111. Copyright c 1995 by Scientific American, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this issue may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic or electronic process, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted or otherwise copied for public or private use without written permission of the publisher. Second-class postage paid at New York, N.Y., and at additional mailing offices. Canada Post International Publications Mail (Canadian Distribution) Sales Agreement No. 242764. Canadian GST No. R 127387652; QST No. Q1015332537. Subscription rates: one year $36 (outside U.S. and possessions add $11 per year for postage). Postmaster: Send address changes to Scientific American, Box 3187, Harlan, Iowa 51537. Reprints available:write Reprint Department, Scientific American, Inc., 415 Madison Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10017-1111; fax: (212) 355-0408 or send E-mail to SCAinquiry@aol.com. Subscription inquiries: U.S. and Canada (800) 333-1199; other (515) 247-7631.

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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN
Table of Contents: November 1995, Volume 273 Number 5

The World's Imperiled Fish, Carl Safina
During the 1950s and 1960s, the catch from commercial fishing grew at three times the rate of the human population. Such increasing exploitation of a limited natural resource could not endure indefinitely: the total return peaked in 1989 and has since stagnated, with some areas in severe decline. Prudent management will be essential to prevent the collapse of this industry.

The Brain's Immune System, Wolfgang J. Streit and Carol A. Kincaid-Colton
The brain polices against disease with the help of chameleonlike cells called microglia. Normally, these highly branched cells sit quietly, their extended arms reaching out to their neighbors; if they detect signs of damage or illness, they retract their branches and mobilize. Growing evidence suggests that microglia may also be responsible for some of the tissue damage caused by Alzheimer's disease and strokes.

Chaotic Climate, Wallace S. Broecker
Geologic records from around the world show that the earth's weather patterns have sometimes changed dramatically in a decade or less. The flow of heat through the oceans, particularly the Atlantic, may be the critical factor determining climate patterns. Researchers are now beginning to understand what triggered past swings and to assess the possibility that we are poised for another in the near future.

Holographic Memories, Demetri Psaltis and Fai Mok
The laser technologies that produce 3-D pictures, or holograms, can also be applied to capture and re-create digital information. Holographic computer memories are already capable of storing almost a billion bytes in the volume of a sugar cube and allowing the data to be accessed 10 times faster than from today's compact-disc systems. Advances in optoelectronics are making these feats possible.

Charles Darwin: The Last Portrait, Richard Milner
"I am very sorry to be disobliging about the photographers," wrote Charles Darwin, "but I cannot endure the thought of sitting again." Despite Darwin's lifelong efforts to avoid public lectures, dinner parties and photography sessions, a few early lensmen managed to capture his image. A stunning photograph has recently been rediscovered--apparently the last ever made of the reclusive naturalist.

God's Utility Function, Richard Dawkins
Does the dazzling complexity of life offer irrefutable evidence of a grand purpose in the universe? No, argues this expert on evolution and natural selection. Patterns of seemingly intelligent design can rather be explained as the result of a contest for survival among selfish genes that exploit their living hosts.

The Discovery of X-rays, Graham Farmelo
One hundred years ago this month, Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen, a quiet German physicist, witnessed a startling image. He attributed the effect to a new kind of electromagnetic ray--emissions that could pass through cardboard, wood and skin. Within months, an astounding array of applications were born.

The Science of Juggling, Peter J. Beek and Arthur Lewbel
Practitioners of this ancient art have found an appreciative audience in the laboratory. Scientists have quantified how many objects can be juggled, analyzed the physiology of the talent, devised mathematics that helps performers invent new juggling patterns and even built juggling robots.


DEPARTMENTS
Science and the Citizen
Rising IQ.... Fiberglass and cancer fears.... "Gay genes" under new scrutiny.... Antarctic meltdown.... Thalidomide rehabilitated.... Mapping heart disease.... Volcano music.... Attractive odors.

The Analytical Economist
Taxes and the female workforce.

Technology and Business
Congress tackles technology without advice.... Algae against sewage.... Linking nerves to silicon.

Profile
Kay Redfield Jamison talks of moods and madness.


Letters to the Editors
The counterfeiting threat.... Red wolves: a new species?... Harvard's women.

50, 100 and 150 Years Ago
1945: DDT warning.
1895: Loss of the bison.
1845: Telegraph balloons.

The Amateur Scientist
Measuring wind speed in tight places.

Mathematical Recreations
How to fill space with knots and doughnuts.

Reviews and Commentaries
Extremely close encounters.... Atlases on CD-ROM.... Science-in-fiction.... Morrison's "Wonders" and Burke's "Connections."

Essay: Anne Eisenberg
Electronic commerce could drop the Net on personal privacy.


SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN November 1995 Volume 273 Number 5 Pages 4-5
Scientific American (ISSN 0036-8733), published monthly by Scientific American, Inc., 415 Madison Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10017-1111. Copyright 1995 by Scientific American, Inc. All rights reserved. Except for one-time personal use, no part of any issue may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic or electronic process, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted or otherwise copied for public or private use without written permission of the publisher. For information regarding back issues, reprints or permissions, E-mail SCAinquiry@aol.com.

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